Millions of people in the world today are affected by two forms of eye disorders. These are nearsightedness and farsightedness. Below is a detailed look at these two conditions and the characteristics of each one.
Experts in ophthalmology will tell you that nearsightedness has a lot to do with the retina. When light enters the eye, it is usually focused directly on the person’s retina. Now, this is the case with people who have normal vision. For people who are nearsighted, visual images are focused in front of the retina. According to eye experts, nearsightedness or myopia is a condition that occurs when the physical length of the eye is greater than the optical length. The result is that people who have myopia cannot see objects that are far away clearly but they can see nearby objects quite clearly. Some of the factors connected to myopia are aging, cataracts, some medications and genetic malformations.
Farsightedness is also called hyperopia. This is a condition where the image is focused behind the retina and not on the retina. People who are farsighted can see distant objects fairly well but they are unable to see objects that are near. In some cases, people are born with hyperopia but the good news is that many children who are born with this condition outgrow it with time.
The Snellen Test Chart is the most common method of diagnosing myopia or hyperopia. This test uses rows of increasingly smaller letters to determine how good or how bad a person’s eyesight is. Other common methods of diagnosing these two conditions are refraction, retinoscopy and the use of computerized devices.
The first step in treating any eye condition is a proper diagnosis. After diagnosis, the optometrist may prescribe contact lenses or glasses to correct the condition. The aim is to ensure that the image is formed directly on the retina and not behind or in front of the retina. If glasses and contact lenses do not work, the eye doctor may recommend LASIK surgery. Other options are Automated Lamellar Keratectomy (ALK), Radial Keratotomy (RK) and Excimer Laser Photo Refractive Keratectomy (PRK). In some cases, experts may recommend certain eye exercises to improve vision.
Farsightedness occurs when light is focused behind the retina while nearsightedness occurs when the visual image is focused in front of the retina. Some common treatment options are LASIK surgery, contact lenses, glasses and eye exercises.
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